Assessing Prolonged Postures In Basic Primary Schools : Case Study Of Adenta-Accra
Author(s): Constance Daq Roberts
Good postural alignment is associated with less likelihood of musculoskeletal symptoms. There is evidence that the inappropriate design of workplaces and work processes/postures contributes significantly to the development and chronicity of common Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs).
• Previous studies indicated that musculoskeletal discomfort and back pain problems were evident not only in adults, but also in children.
• In line with this problem, this paper assesses the level of prolonged workplace
postures on workers and students in basic, primary and junior high schools at Accra-
Adenta and also report on the relationship between MSDs as a result of prolonged
postures and their effects on Safety and Health (OSH).
The methodology consisted of :
• A survey that used questionnaires to collect primary data. Questionnaires contained
ergonomic related items with contingencies and matrix questions made up of open-
ended and close-ended types to collect data for the study.
• A convenience sampling approach was first used to select twenty (20) schools from the basic, primary and junior high levels.
• Furthermore, a random sampling approach was adopted to select respondents from each school. A total of 421 subjects ranging in age from 7 to 54 years were evaluated during the survey that took almost 120 hours.
• Finally, an existing ergonomic standard that helps for quick detection of MSDs, precisely; the Cornell University (1994) checklist was equally used.
• Results showed that nearly 50 percent of the subjects reported physical discomfort with neck (65.4%), knee (81.6%) and shoulder (74%) symptoms being the most
• It is recommended that an effective safety & health program should be developed and implemented in basic schools. Also awareness, education and application of
ergonomics principles must be highly raised in basic
schools to prevent the occurrence of most MSDs.